Philosophical views on life, destiny, human joys and problems of various philosophers have led to the emergence of trends in science, which not only summed theoretical line under these categories, but suggested different patterns of behavior of people in different situations the same. Cynics have become famous in history not so much theoretical dos tizheniyami as extravagant as "worldly philosophy her. Belonged to the school of ancient philosophy. The founder – Antisthenes (ca. 400-ca. 360 BC), disciple of Socrates and Gorgias. Like Socrates, he believed that happiness can only be to a virtuous life, and virtuous and happy life free thought.

Liberty, in his opinion, achieved asketiz IOM – the rejection of artificial needs, imparted by society, wealth, fame, and all sensual pleasures. Cynics were treated with a demonstrated disregard for with socially accepted norms and establishment of a culture. The most famous representative of the school Cynics – Diogenes of Sinope (ca. Continue to learn more with: BSA. 400 – ca. 325 BC), the hero of many jokes.

As described in one of them, Diogenes walked through the city during the day with a lighted lantern and saying: "I am looking for the people" (ie, under linnogo person). Cyrenaica, in contrast to the asceticism of the Cynics, preached the pleasure principle as a happy life, identified with the happiness of sensual pleasures. The founder Aristippus in search of a criterion of good and true purpose of life has adopted the idea of Socrates on the relationship of virtue and happiness. Happiness (bliss) – not an abstract category, and directly chuvstvuemy criterion of the correctness of actions. Wisdom is to use treats, does not offer trouble, and not suffer because of abstinence from them. What are the basic philosophy of the Stoics? The Stoics as well as Epicureans, not so much interested in questions of public good, as the problem kindly th state of the human soul. In contrast to the Epicureans, they believed that man has no freedom of action that can not be changed circumstances of its existence, and they believed in the inevitability of fate and the inability to escape from a predetermined course of events. If external circumstances are beyond us, it should be, according to the Stoics, treat them the philosophical detachment. The philosophy of the wise man is that he should understand the naturalness of everything that happens, do not succumb to despair or, in any euphoria, but always keep calm, or even indifference, or rather apathy. Everything in life is predetermined by fate. Founder toitsizma – Zeno of Kition (336/5-264/3 BC).